## Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) in Quality Improvement

#### Bias (Multiple Parts, One Equipment, Multiple Appraisers)

For this type of study each appraiser must test the same part at least twice. At least two parts must be measured, and all appraisers must test the same number of parts the same number of times....

#### Nested Gauge R&R (Multiple Equipment, Multiple Appraisers, One Part)

A nested gauge R&R is performed when appraisers cannot take measurements using all the measuring devices available for the study.

#### Gauge R&R (Multiple Equipment, Multiple Appraisers, One Part)

There are many applications where an organization has multiple sets of measuring devices (equipment) opening the possibility of variation between the different devices, which can introduce an additional source of error to measurements.

#### Gauge Bias Linearity (multiple equipment)

A multiple equipment study is an extension of a single linearity study performed by one appraiser using one equipment. It is not uncommon for multiple measuring devices to be available for testing the same parts.

#### Gauge Performance Curve

A Gauge Performance Curve is used to determine the probability of accepting or rejecting a part whose value is equal to some reference value.

#### Gauge Capability and Repeatability

Gauge repeatability is a measure in terms of standard deviations of how close repeated measurements on the same part, by the same operator are. Gauge reproducibility is about close clustering of repeat measurements, not closeness to the target.

#### Bias Analysis (Multiple Equipment)

Bias is an important characteristic of a measuring system. It can be defined as the difference between the reference (â€˜actualâ€™) value of a part and the measured value.

#### Gauge R&R (One Equipment, one part, multiple Appraisers)

There are several types of Gauge R&R analysis that can be performed. This option is applicable when one reference part is used for the study and measured by several appraisers.

#### Gauge R&R (One Equipment, multiple part, multiple Appraisers)

A Gauge R&R (GRR), is used to study repeatability (by the same operator) and reproducibility (by different operators).

#### Gauge Stability

The objective of a Gauge Stability Study is to see how consistent repeatability, reproducibility and bias is over time.

#### Attributes Measurement System

Attributes measurement systems are a class of systems where outcomes are discrete, not continuous such as a weighing scale.

#### Bias Linearity

A linearity study is performed to establish if there is a linear relationship with magnitude of the measured item.